Late Stone Age
During the Later Stone Age, from about 40,000 years ago, a wide range of bone and wooden tools was increasingly in use and plants were used for making rope, string, nets, mats, etc.
This period was characterised by the habitation of the area by the San. South Africa, and specifically the Kruger National Park, has one of the best-preserved and largest concentrations of San Rock Art in Africa, which date from about 27 000 years ago to as recently as 100 years ago.
Ochre and other mineral pigments were used for body painting as well as for painting on rock. Bows and arrows were used for the first time during the Later Stone Age, possibly from about 10,000 years ago.
Formal burial was practised and the symbolism and spiritual thought now understood to have been behind the rock art is clear evidence that intellectual capabilities similar to ours had already developed by the Late Stone Age.